Last Updated on August 16, 2023 by Jake Sheridan

## 25 Google Sheets Calculations How-Tos

Diving into the maze of Google Sheets calculations can seem like a…

*Wait a minute, I think AI wrote this intro. No human actually dives into a maze. You foolish robot, better luck next time. Let me write the rest with fleshy human hands…* 🤖

Whether you’re scheduling tasks, crunching numbers, or predicting trends, Google Sheets has got you covered.

## How To Calculate (Almost) Anything in Google Sheets

Below you will find **25 step-by-step instructions** for calculating (almost) everything in Google Sheets.

Each tutorial is grouped under these categories to make it a little easier to navigate:

- Basic Calculations
- Advanced Calculations
- Time and Date Calculations
- Data Comparison and Difference Calculation
- Statistical Analysis in Google Sheets
- Graphing and Trend Analysis
- Keeping Track of Calculations

## Basic Calculations in Google Sheets

Learn the fundamental formulas and methods to perform basic mathematical operations such as sum, average, percentage, and tallying in Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Sum

- You need to have a clean and tidy group of data to work with.
- Insert the formula =SUM(A3:A8) to calculate the sum for the data group.
- Copy the example spreadsheet to see how it is done.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Sum In Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Average

- The mean of a data set is the sum of all numbers in the dataset, divided by the number of data points.
- The median of a data set is the middle number if all numbers are ranked in order, or the mean of the two middle numbers if there are an even number of numbers.
- The mode of a dataset is the number that appears most frequently in the data set.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Average On Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Percentage

- There are a few ways to visualize data using percentages.
- You can use percentages to visualize a proportion, over a total, or changes between data.
- To show percentages in Google Sheets, select the cell, then select ‘Format’, then select ‘Number’, then select ‘Percent’.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Percentage In Google Sheets

### How to Increase Cell Value by 1

- Incrementing a cell value by 1 is a common task when working with data in Google Sheets.
- Google Sheets makes it easy to increase cell values by 1 using a simple formula or the AutoFill tool.
- You can use the Fill Handle tool to copy the formula down the column.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Increase Cell Value By 1 in Google Sheets

### How to Tally

- Create a separate tab in Google Sheets to enter tally data.
- Use checkboxes to represent each tally.
- Use the COUNTIF formula to sum up the tally count.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Tally In Google Sheets

## Advanced Calculations in Google Sheets

This section covers how to perform more complex statistical calculations like standard deviation, variance, standard error, p-value, and z-score using Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Standard Deviation

- The formula used to calculate standard deviation is the STDEV() formula.
- The reference to the range of data to be used in the formula is added as a parameter.
- The standard deviation will recalculate any time the data in the input range is updated.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Standard Deviation In Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Variance

- Variance of a sample can be calculated using the VAR() function in Google Sheets.
- Variance of an entire population can be calculated using the VARP() function in Google Sheets.
- The default number of decimal places for variance calculations can be adjusted in the toolbar.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Variance In Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Standard Error

- A clean and tidy group of data is needed to calculate standard errors in Google Sheets.
- The formula =STDEV.S(A3:A8) / SQRT(COUNT(A3:A8)) can be used to calculate the standard error.
- An example spreadsheet is provided to help understand the process.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Standard Error In Google Sheets

### How to Calculate P Value

- The p-value provides the minimal level of significance at which the null hypothesis would be rejected.
- To calculate P Value in Google Sheets, one needs to insert the formula =T.TEST(A2:A10,B2:B10,2,2).
- An example spreadsheet is provided to help understand the process.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate P Value In Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Z Score

- Z Score is a statistic that indicates how many standard deviations a result deviates from the mean.
- The formula to calculate Z Score is z = (X – μ) / σ, where X is a single raw data value, μ is the mean of the dataset, and σ is the standard deviation of the dataset.
- To apply the formula to all of the data, you can simply drag the right-bottom corner downwards.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Z Score In Google Sheets

## Time and Date Calculations in Google Sheets

Understand how to effectively manipulate and calculate time, age, and date-related data in your spreadsheets with Google Sheets’ versatile functions.

### How to Calculate Time

- Select the cell you want to calculate the duration in and type the formula “=B2-A2”.
- To properly format the calculation cell as a duration, select it then open the Format menu and choose Duration.
- To convert fractions of days to decimal time, multiply by 24 using the formula “=C2*24”.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Time In Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Age

- The DATEDIF function can be used to calculate age.
- The YEARFRAC function can be used to calculate age.
- An example spreadsheet is provided to help understand the process.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Age In Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Dates

- The DAYS, DATEDIF, and NETWORKDAYS functions can be used to count the number of days between two dates.
- The DAYS and DATEDIF functions count all days, while the NETWORKDAYS function excludes Saturdays and Sundays.
- A clean and tidy group of data is needed to calculate dates in Google Sheets.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Dates In Google Sheets

### How to Calculate Days Between Dates

- The DAYS, DATEDIF, and NETWORKDAYS functions can be used to count the number of days between two dates.
- The DAYS and DATEDIF functions count all days, while the NETWORKDAYS function excludes Saturdays and Sundays.
- An example spreadsheet is provided to help understand the calculations.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Days Between Dates in Google Sheets

## Data Comparison and Difference Calculation in Google Sheets

Explore various ways to compare data and calculate differences between columns, as well as finding the highest value among your data points.

### How to Calculate Difference

- You can calculate differences between two different values in Google Sheets by using formulas.
- You need to have a clean and tidy group of data to work with.
- You can manually subtract the two values using the minus sign ‘-’.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Calculate Difference In Google Sheets

### How To Find Difference Between Two Columns

- You can use formulas to calculate the difference between two values in Google Sheets.
- You can manually subtract the two values using the minus sign ‘-’.
- You can copy the example spreadsheet to see how it is done.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Find Difference Between Two Columns in Google Sheets

### How To Find Highest Value

- Select the entire data group, then select ‘Format’ then select ‘Conditional Formatting’.
- Use a custom formula to format and color the highest exam result among the students.
- The highest-scoring student will be highlighted once the formula is applied.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Find Highest Value in Google Sheets

## Statistical Analysis in Google Sheets

Dive into Google Sheets’ capability to perform statistical analyses like finding correlation, correlation coefficient, and performing regression.

### How to Find Correlation

- Correlation is a statistical relationship between two data sets that may or may not imply causation.
- The CORRELL() function can be used to quickly find correlation between two data sets.
- Correlations range from -1 to 1, with greater absolute value implying stronger correlation.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Find Correlation In Google Sheets

### How to Find Correlation Coefficient

- The Correlation Coefficient is a statistical tool used to assess the strength of the correlation between two datasets.
- Correlation coefficients range from -1 to 1, with greater absolute value implying stronger correlation and numbers close to zero implying weak or no correlation.
- The CORRELL() function in Google Sheets can be used to calculate the correlation coefficient between two datasets.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Find Correlation Coefficient In Google Sheets

### How to Do Regression

- Linear regression is a statistical method used to investigate the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.
- The equation for a linear regression line is in the form Y = a + bX where X is the independent variable and Y is the dependent variable.
- An easy way to find the linear regression line in Google Sheets is to chart the data using a scatter plot.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Do Regression In Google Sheets

## Graphing and Trend Analysis in Google Sheets

This segment provides insights on how to find slopes, trendline equations, y-intercepts, and generally use Google Sheets for graphical trend analysis.

### How to Find Slope

- Insert a scatter plot in Google Sheets to find the slope of the data.
- Slope is calculated as the rise divided by the run, or the change in height divided by the interval that change occurs over.
- The equation for a straight line is y = mx + c, where m is the slope and c is the y intercept of the line.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Find Slope In Google Sheets

### How to Find Trendline Equation

- Select the entire data cell, choose Insert, and select Chart.
- Change the chart title to ‘Enjoyment Metric’ for a better representation of the scatter chart.
- Select ‘Trendline’ and then select ‘Use Equation’ as your Label.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Find Trendline Equation In Google Sheets

### How to Find Slope

- Any two different points on a line can be used to calculate the slope of any line.
- Select the entire data cell, choose Insert, and select Chart to generate a line chart.
- Select ‘Series’, then select ‘Trendline’ to insert the slope.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Find Slope On Google Sheets

### How to Find Y Intercept

- Select the entire data cell, choose Insert, and select Chart.
- Change the chart title to ‘Enjoyment Metric’ for a better representation of the scatter chart.
- Select ‘Trendline’ and then select ‘Use Equation’ as your Label to find the y-intercept.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Find Y Intercept In Google Sheets

## Keeping Track of Calculations in Google Sheets

Master techniques for maintaining a running total and tracking data over time, providing a dynamic way to monitor your spreadsheet’s calculations.

### How to Keep a Running Total

- Prepare the spreadsheet by entering the numbers in chronological order and adding additional info in columns to the left.
- Calculate the running total by adding a header to the column beside the number column and entering the formula.
- Update the formula to only display the running balance for rows with data entered.

**More detailed tutorial:** How To Keep A Running Total In Google Sheets

## Summary

Hopefully this guide has given you an overview of the different calculations Google Sheets can handle.

### What’s Next?

Explore some of the other useful resources on Sheets for Marketers:

**Google Sheets Templates**– A collection of over 200 Google Sheets templates for SEO, marketing, PPC and more.**Google Sheets Tutorials**– A growing collection of spreadsheet tutorials for doing (almost) everything in Google Sheets.**Data Studio Templates**– A collection of over 50 Google Data Studio templates for SEO reporting.